• below; down; under; younger (e.g. daughter)
  • bottom
  • beneath; underneath
  • just after; right after - as 下から, 下より, etc.

noun / ~の noun:

  • inferiority; one's inferior (i.e. one's junior)


prefix noun:

ところでtokorodeyoそのsonoおめーome-noおとうさんotousanhaどこdokoniいんinnosa?」「横転outenしたshitaトラックTORAKKUnoshimonanyo。」 "By the way, where's your old man?" "Under that over-turned truck."

shitani署名shomeiしてshiteくださいkudasai Sign at the bottom, please.

amega私のwatashinoレインコートREINKOOTOnoshitaまでmadeしみとおったshimitootta The rain penetrated my raincoat.

一番ichibankanoimoutoga出世shusseしたshitaときtokiwatashiha我を忘れてwagawowasurete嫉妬shittoしたshita I was beside myself with jealousy when my youngest sister rose in the world.



  • lowness (of degree, value, etc.); inferiority
  • second volume (of two); third volume (of three) Antonym: 上【じょう】 下巻


  • lower reaches (of a river) Antonym: 上【かみ】
  • bottom; lower part
  • lower half (of the body, esp. the privates); feces (faeces); urine; menses
  • end; far from the imperial palace (i.e. far from Kyoto, esp. of western Japan)

~の noun:

  • dirty (e.g. dirty jokes, etc.)


  • under (esp. influence or guidance) - sometimes written 元

suffix / ~の noun:

  • under (being in said condition or environment)

重体のjuutaino赤ちゃんakachanha医者ishano注意深いchuuibukai監視kanshikani置かれていたokareteita The very sick baby was under careful observation by the doctors.

Kanji definition:

KAGEしたshitaしもshimoもとmotoげるsa.geruがるsa.garuくだkuda.ruくだkuda.riくだkuda.su~くだ kuda.suくださるkuda.saruろすo.rosuりるo.riru

below; down; descend; give; low; inferior

一 one
하 [ha]
Stroke order:
Example words:
alighting (from train, bus, etc.); getting off
fall; decline; lowering; deterioration; degradation
basement; cellar; underground place; / underground; below ground; / secret; under cover; / underground (railway); subway; metro
reduction; cut
not exceeding; and downward; ... and below; / below (e.g. standard); under (e.g. a level); / the below-mentioned; the following; the rest

Partial results:

おりるoriru Inflection

ichidan verb / intransitive verb:

  • to descend (e.g. a mountain); to go down; to come down - esp. 下りる
  • to alight (e.g. from bus); to get off; to disembark; to dismount - esp. 降りる
  • to step down; to retire; to give up; to quit
  • to be granted; to be issued; to be given - esp. 下りる
  • to form (of frost, dew, mist, etc.) - esp. 降りる
  • to be passed (from the body; e.g. of a roundworm) - esp. 下りる 下り物

あのanoプロPUROnoスキーヤーSUKIIYAAha離れ業hanarewazawoshiながらnagarayamawoおりるorirunoga好きsukiだったdatta The professional skier liked to "hot-dog" down the mountain.

列車resshawo降りるorirutoすぐにsugunikarehaいとこitokono出迎えdemukaewo受けたuketa As soon as he got off the train, he was met by his cousin.

早朝souchounirogaおりるoriru The dew falls in early morning.



  • please give me - honorific language
  • please do for me - after te-form of a verb or a noun prefixed with o- or go- - honorific language
へたheta Inflection

adjectival noun / noun:

karehaイギリスIGIRISU生まれumaredaga英語eigogaとてもtotemo下手hetaであるdearu He comes from England, but is very poor at English.

そこでsokodeベスBESU下手hetaよりyori登場toujou Now Beth enters, stage right!

さげるsageru Inflection

ichidan verb / transitive:

  • to hang; to suspend; to wear (e.g. decoration)
  • to lower; to reduce; to bring down
  • to demote; to move back; to pull back
  • to clear (plates); to remove (food, etc. from table or altar)

彼らkarerahaそのsononewo下げるsageruことkotoni同意douiしなかったshinakatta They did not agree to bring down the price.

kareniatamawo下げるsagerunohaいやiyada I don't want to bow down to him.



  • underwear

watashiha新しいatarashii下着shitagiga気に入っているkiniitteiru I'm pleased with my new underwear.

宿げしゅくgeshuku Inflection

noun / ~する noun:

  • boarding; lodging; boarding house

watashiha下宿geshukuwo探していましたsagashiteimashita I was on the hunt for lodgings.

さがるsagaruirr. Inflection

godan ~る verb / intransitive verb:

  • to come down; to go down; to fall; to drop; to sink; to get lower Antonym: 上がる
  • to hang; to dangle
  • to move back; to step back; to withdraw; to retire
  • to deteriorate; to fall off; to be downgraded
  • to get closer to the present day
  • to go south - in Kyoto

あお向けaomukeni寝るnerutoshitayaノドチンコNODOCHINKOgaノドNODOnookuni下がるsagaruためtame上気道joukidouga塞がりfusagariやすくyasukuなりますnarimasu If you sleep on your back it's easier for your upper airway to be obstructed because your tongue, uvula, etc. slip towards the back of your throat.

眠るnemurutokaradano機能kinougaゆっくりyukkuriになりninari体温taionga下がるsagaru When we are asleep, bodily functions slow down and body temperature falls.

物価bukkahaまもなくmamonaku下がるsagaruはずhazuda Prices ought to come down soon.


noun / suffix noun:

  • down-train (going away from Tokyo)
  • down-slope; downward going

~の noun:

  • southbound

ここkokono下りkudarimo手掛かりtegakarigaないnaiのでnode危険kikenda The downclimb here is also dangerous as there are no handholds.


godan ある verb (spec.):

  • to give; to confer; to bestow - honorific language
  • to kindly do for one; to oblige; to favour; to favor - honorific language

来てkite下さるkudasaruだけでいいdakedeiiのですnodesu I just want you to come.

おろすorosuirr. Inflection

godan ~す verb / transitive:

  • to take down (e.g. flag); to launch (e.g. boat); to drop; to lower (e.g. ladder); to let (a person) off; to unload; to discharge
  • to drop off (a passenger from a vehicle); to let (a person) off
  • to withdraw (cash)
  • to wear (clothing) for the first time
  • to fillet (e.g. a fish)

じゃja下ろすorosu Good. Now go down with it.

彼女kanojoha銀行ginkouからkara貯金chokinwo全部zenbuおろすorosuつもりtsumoriだったdatta She intended to withdraw all her savings from the bank.

げしゃgesha Inflection

noun / ~する noun:

  • alighting (from train, bus, etc.); getting off

watashihaekiwo間違えてmachigaete下車geshaしましたshimashita I got off at the wrong station.


adverbial noun / temporal noun:

  • last third of a month; 21st to the last day of a month

8月hachigatsu下旬gejunni彼らkareraha繁殖hanshokunoためにtameni長いnagaitabini出発しますshuppatsushimasu In late August, they set off on a long journey for breeding.



  • low-lying part of a city (usu. containing shops, factories, etc.)
  • Shitamachi (low-lying area of eastern Tokyo near Tokyo Bay, incl. Asakusa, Shitaya, Kanda, Fukugawa, Honjo, Nihonbashi, Kyobashi and surrounds) 山の手

彼女kanojoha下町shitamachide生まれumare育ったsodatta She was born and brought up on the backstreets.

かこうkakou Inflection

noun / ~する noun:

  • descent; fall; drop; decline; downturn; subsidence
したがきshitagaki Inflection

noun / ~する noun:

  • draft; rough copy

watashihaスピーチSUPIICHIno下書きshitagakiwo書いていますkaiteimasu I am writing a draft of the speech.

げひんgehin Inflection

adjectival noun / noun:

  • vulgar; indecent; coarse; crude

下品gehin極まるkiwamaru盛り場sakaribani通いkayoiつけるtsukeru He haunts the lowest resorts.

くだるkudaru Inflection

godan ~る verb / intransitive verb:

  • to descend; to go down; to come down
  • to be handed down (of an order, judgment, etc.)
  • to pass (of time)
  • to surrender; to capitulate
  • to be less than; to be inferior to - often in neg. form
  • to have the runs; to have diarrhea - also written as 瀉る 腹が下る
  • to pass (in stool); to be discharged from the body
  • to depreciate oneself; to be humble - archaism

yamawo下ったkudattaところtokoroni学校gakkougaあるaru There is a school down the mountain.

kareha懲役chouekinende女房nyoubouにはniha三年nokeiga下ったkudatta He was given ten years and his wife three.

beino収穫shuukakuga下ったらkudattara大変なtaihennaことになるkotoninaruzo A poor rice harvest will get us into real trouble.



  • drainage; ditch; gutter; sewerage
  • sewage; black water

下水gesuiga完全にkanzenni詰まっているtsumatteiru The drains are blocked up.



  • geta; Japanese wooden clogs
  • turn (in set-type proofing); upside-down character - later printed as 〓, resembling the teeth of a geta 伏せ字【ふせじ】

下駄getawo突っかけてtsukkaketehyouni飛び出したtobidashita I slipped on my geta and dashed outside.

くだらないkudaranai Inflection


  • good-for-nothing; stupid; trivial; worthless

くだらないkudaranaihanashihaもうたくさんmoutakusanda We have had enough of empty words.



  • underline; underscore

下線kasennoあるarubunwo訳しyakushiなさいnasai Translate the underlined sentences.


noun / ~の noun:

  • low rank; lower position; subordinate position; lower order (e.g. byte)

kareha組んだkunda下位kai候補者kouhoshaga悪かったwarukattaのでnode落選rakusenしましたshimashita He was dropped because of his running mate.

調したしらべshitashirabe Inflection

noun / ~する noun:

  • preliminary investigation; preparation

下調べshitashirabehaしたshitaかいkai会議kaigiha2日godayo Did you do your homework? The meeting is only two days away.

げりgeri Inflection

noun / ~する noun / ~の noun:

  • diarrhoea; diarrhea

下痢geri止めtomeですdesu Here's some medicine for diarrhea.



  • burning low; waning; declining

化学kagaku業界gyoukaihaすべてsubetega下火shitabiになるninaruまでmade再投資saitoushiwo控えていますhikaeteimasu Chemical companies are waiting until everything dies down before reinvesting.

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© Based on JMdict, KANJIDIC2, and JMnedict, property of the Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group, used in conformance with the Group's licence. Example sentences from the Tatoeba project (CC BY 2.0). Kanji stroke order data from the KanjiVG project by Ulrich Apel (CC BY-SA 3.0). See comprehensive list of data sources for more info.

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